Thursday, June 14, 2012

DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech)


Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses, struktur kalimat, pronoun (kata ganti orang), Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan), keterangan waktu, dan tempat.
Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung.
Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what, why, where, when, who, how. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1, (-) not to infinitive/V1 

Contoh Kalimat 
Kalimat langsung/direct
Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect
(+) He said, “ I have a present for you in my bag.”
(-) He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”
(?) He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?
(?) He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?
(!) He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”
(!) He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”
(+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag.
(-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.
(?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.
(?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.
(!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.
(!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

Perubahan Tenses
Direct (kalimat langsung)
Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung)

Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Future
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous

Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous

Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah:
Direct
Indirect
V1 (eat)
V2 (ate)
Am/is/are
Do/does
Do/does not
Did not
Was/were
Am/is/are + V-ing
Was/were +V-ing
Has/have + V3
Will/shall/can/may/must
Could/might/should/would + V1/be
V2  (ate)
Had + V3  (had eaten)
Was/were
Did
Did not
Had not + V3
Had been
Was/were + V-ing
Had been + V-ing
Had + V3
Would/should/could/might/had to
could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been



Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat

Direct
Indirect
Now
Today
Tomorrow

 
Next… 
Last…
 
…ago 
Yesterday
 
The day before yesterday
Here
This
These
Then
That day
The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later
The… after
The following…
The…before
The previous …
The preceeding
…before
…earlier
The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day
Two day before
There
That
those

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