Tuesday, June 19, 2012

ADVERBS


Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. Adverbs limit, change, or alter the words they modify.
1.      ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS
He is driving.
This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. If an adverb is added, you will find out how he is driving, where he is driving, or when he is driving.
How is he driving? He is driving quickly.
Where is he driving? He is driving away.
When is he driving? He is driving now.
2.      ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES
In the following sentence, the noun sunset is described as beautiful. What part of speech is the word beautiful?
The campers saw a beautiful sunset.
Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. If you want to tell how beautiful it was, you can add something in front of the adjective.
The campers saw a very beautiful sunset.
The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset.
When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was, or to what extent it was beautiful, that word is called an adverb. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful?
Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives.
extremely                           somewhat
a little                                completely
really                                 tremendously
particularly                       especially
perfectly                            unusually
3.      ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS
Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs.
The dog ate quickly.
The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. By adding another adverb, we can find out how quickly the dog ate, as follows:
How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.
WORDS ENDING IN “LY”
Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective.
ADJECTIVE                  ADD -LY                    ADVERB
bright                                                                     brightly
easy                                   *first, change y to I       easily
soft                                                                        softly
full                                     *first, change ll to l       fully
careful                                                                   carefully
quick                                                                     quickly
* Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word.
WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS
Some words can only be used as adverbs, never as adjectives. A list of these words follows.
The only way to remember these words is to memorize them, and learn to recognize them in
sentences.
well4                                 often
quite                                  surely
very                                   not
almost                                never
always                               so (He was so happy.)
usually
In the section on verb phrases, you learned that some small words can be found in the middle
of verb phrases, but they are not verbs. Those words are adverbs.
He was always asking questions.
He will never tell another lie.
Eric will not shop on Sundays.
I have often wondered about the moon.
WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES
A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. Three examples of such words are early, fast, and late.
The train arrived early. (adverb)
 It was an early train. (adjective)
Penny drives fast. (adverb)
Penny is a fast driver. (adjective)
A student is late. (adverb)
There is a late student. (adjective)


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