Sunday, July 8, 2012

SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS : AN ANALISIS OF SPEECH ACT IN SHORT STORIES OF ISLAMIC MAGAZINE

AN ANALYSIS OF SPEECH ACT IN SHORT STORIES OF ISLAMIC MAGAZINE

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A.    Background
There are many people who write literary work. People write literature to express their emotions and ideas. We find it in magazines and newspaper which belong to fiction such as short story. Furthermore, people read stories for pleasure, recognizing familiar experiences and feelings and escape into unfamiliar places and times. Literature is like a house with a great number of windows. As you learn about world, you learn about yourself. In short the reason why people read stories is the stimulation everyone's imaginations. They make our live larger by increasing our capacity to imagine.
Modern literary fiction in English has been dominated by two forms; they are novel and short story. Both are imaginative work and ideas of the writer. Author write short story with some purpose. Some of them are to tell about something to reader, to express their ideas or imagine, give illusion and also as entertainment. Because of that, author write short story in interesting from, in order to avoid the boredom of readers. So many ways and styles of the writer in presenting interesting stories such as by using kinds of words and sentences or can be called speech act. They should have control the text that would be written so the reader can understand.
To make their short story pleasure to reading, commonly they are very same dialogues among and in a character that is created. In dialogues, some character are speaking, they speak one another use sentences or to be more precise utterance, in making utterance speaker doesn't only speak but also has meanings and effect for listener. Speaker hope respond (can be answer or act) from listener. It is called speech act.
Because of that researcher interest to research about speech act.       
B. Problem
   The problems of this research were formulated as follow:
     1. What kind of speech acts are found in Islamic magazine "annida"
     2. How do author lose of speech act in Islamic magazine " Annida"
C.    Limitation of the research
The research would be limited in the analysis of speech act found in dialogues in short stories of an Islamic "annida" magazine
D.    Objectives
The objectives of this research are:
1.      Identify kind of speech acts in "annida" magazine
2.      Investigate how the author use speech acts in "annida" magazine
E.     Significance of the research
To gives contribution to the students of English department for increasing of their understanding.


CHAPTER 11
LITERATURE OF REVIEW

Everyone who learn history will know everything happened in the past through  reading books. He will get pleasure of recognizing familiar experiences and feeling and we can escape into unfamiliar place and times.
Another ways of learning history is through literature. It is also learning about history but the emphasis is on the language.
A.    Short story
Short story is a fiction extended by the author based on reality. Through ideas, emotion, desires and imagination to express impression of human life. Koesnosoebroto(1988) said that structurally, the short story must content itself with few characters, few incident, scenes, or episodes, few setting and it take place in a brief span of  time and it can develop only one or two characters with anything approaching fullness. It is pressed for time. In concluding, short story must content form of story such as characters, events, and setting. It is should be presented by author although in a very brief short story.    
B.     Speech act
1.      Definition of speech act
The study of speech act is the study how to do thing with utterances. In making utterance, speaker does not only speak but also has meanings and effects for listener. Speaker hope respond from listener. For example:
Jack     : "I will come to your house tomorrow"
Jenny   : "oh, yeah".
On example above, speaker only said to his friend "I will come to your house tomorrow". He does not add hiss utterance more specific. Whereas he can add sentence such as "you should be at home at five o'clock" or "you should serve me goodly". The listener may be confuses and cannot catch the intent of the speaker. Listener will interpret that it is just murmur of the speaker or more than that listener think every possible meaning besides utterance. Speech act was not an utterance that can pass after uttered by the speaker.  The utterance "I will come to your house tomorrow", implicitly means that the speaker would like to express her or his expectation for the listener after he or she uttered the sentence.
Austin in Hatim and Mason (1990) distinguished three different kinds of action which are performed when a language user produces and utterance:
Locutionary act,  perlocutionary act, and illocutionary act.
a.       Locutionary act is the action performed by uttering a well - form, meaningful sentences.
b.      Illocutionary act is the communicative force which accompanies the utterance, e.g promising, warning, conceding, denying, stating, ordering, etc.
c.       Perlocutionary act is the effect of the utterance on the hearer/reader, i.e. the extent to which the receiver's state of mind/knowledge/attitude is altered by the utterance in question.
Austin in Malcolm (1977) distinguished the utterance in two group, constative and fer formative. Constative are statements which are not intended to record or import information about facts. For example "the king of France is Bald". Per formative are sentences in which the saying of the words can statue the performing of an action,for example "I name this ship the queen Elizabeth" as, uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. In saying this sentence, the speaker actually performing the action of naming ship: from that moment the ship is named.
Ibrahim (1993) state that a sentence can be called a speech act of the sentence if it contains the following characteristic:
a. General structure of speech act
b. Proportional content can be stated by complement sentence from indirect from explicitly.
c. Illocutionary from cause.
d. Listener makes inference that the speaker has self-confidence or certain exception.
e. Change of interactional situation.
f. General structure of order of speech act is organized in pattern of discourse with certain variable.
g. Speech act is affective by instruction.
h. Speech act can be classified on grammatical structure. Types of proportional content and its of elocutionary force, function and original.

2.      Kind of speech act
Leech (1991) classified four categories of speech act, they are:
a.       Competitive is the purpose of illocutionary goal competes with the social goal,e.g ordering, asking, demanding, begging, commanding, requesting.
b.      Convivial is the purpose of illocutionary has the parallel coincides with the social goal; e.g offering, inviting, greeting, thanking, addressing, congratulating.
c.       Collaborative is the purpose of illocutionary is not concern to the social goals; e. g asserting, reporting, announcing, instructing, stating, teaching.
d.      Conflictive is the purpose of elocutionary purpose conflicts with the social goal, e. g threaten, cursing, accusing, reprimanding.

Austin(1965) classified classes of utterance according to their illocutionary force names:
a.       Exercitives are against a certain course, or advocacy of it or the giving of a decision in favor of : e. g order, sentence, command, fine, direct, grant, the exercising of powers, rights or influence.
b.      Commisives commit the speaker to doing something, but include declarations or announcements of intention; e. g promise, undertake, intend, plan, purpose,swear, etc.
c.       Behabitives includes the notion of reaction to other people's behavior and fortunes and of attitudes and expressions of attitudes to someone else past conduct or imminent conduct; e. g apologize, thank, congratulate, commend, welcome, wish, protest, etc.
d.     Expositives are used in act of exposition involving the expounding of views, the conducting of arguments and the clarifying of usage and of references.
e.       Verdictives consists in the delivering of a finding, official or unofficial, upon evidence or reasons as to value or fact; have obvious connections with truth and falsify as regards soundness and unsoundness or fairness and unfairness; e . g acquit, grade, convict, estimate, understand, analyze, describe, etc.
Searle in Lavinson (1983) categories of speech act as follows:
a.       Directives, which are attempts by the speaker to get the addressee to do something, requesting, questioning, for example: He put his bottom at the edge of chair. "why do you come late?" He bent his body towards me.
b.      Representatives, which commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed, proposition, asserting, concluding,
He looks to the sky and say "he day be raining and we must go now".
c.       Commissives, which commit the speaker to same future course of action; promising, threatening, and offering, for example:
She stands beside her mother in the kitchen "what can I do for you,mam?"
d.      Expressive, which express a psychological state thanking, apologizing, welcoming, congratulating, for example:
I receipt a letter from my father "Thank a lot" I say to the post man.
e.       Declarative, which effect immediate changes in the institutional state of affairs and which tend to rely on elaborate extra-linguistic institutions: excommunicating, declaring word, christening, firing from employment. For example:
The director looks at me terrify, He doesn't talk much as formerly. "I fire you from my factory:. He gives a letter to my hand.

  


CHAPTER III
METHOD OF RESEARCH
A.      Design
This is a descriptive quantitative study of short story in Annida magazine in using speech act. This research aimed to use how the speaker's utter speech acts in various condition met in the magazine. To collect its data, the researcher analysis the short story in Annida magazine. There are some steps to analyze the data: understanding, signalizing and analyzing. The function of these steps is to make easy to analyze speech act in each data.
B.      Data analysis technique
In this research the researcher collected the data through three steeps:
1.       Understanding, this process is started by reading the text short story in Annida Magazine word to word.
2.       Signalizing, after understanding the text, the researcher signalized each speech act. Every speech act were tabulated based on leech's theory.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A.      Result
       Chapter four describes the kinds of speech acts founds in kisi rubric " and how do author use speech acts in kisi rubric that is written by different authors at each rubric. As many as eleven rubrics from twenty four editions in a year were selected and analyzed to find out kinds of speech act in short stories and the ways of authors use speech acts in short stories of "Annida" magazine.
1.      Kind of Speech Act Found in Short Stories of an Islamic Magazine "Annida"
After analyzing all texts, it was found that he kinds of speech act in short stories of an Islamic magazine "Annida" are directives, representatives, commissives and expressive. The total Frequency and Percentage  the kinds of speech act in eleven rubrics were shown at the table below :
Kind of speech acts Frequency
Directives 190
Representatives 279
Commissives 7
Expressive 40
Declarative -
Total 516
Table 1 : The Total Frequency and Percentage  the Kinds of Speech Acts
     Table 1 show that only four categories of speech acts used in short stories of "Annida" magazine. They are directives, representatives, commissives and expressive. No declarative is found. The most dominant kinds of speech act are  representatives which the frequency 279 times, then Directives which the frequency 190 times,Expressive which appear 40 times, and Commissives which appear 7 times.
2.      The Use of Speech Acts in Short Stories of "Annida" Magazine
     The result of the analysis shows the function of each category of speech acts. There are five function of representatives : telling, asserting, concluding, suggesting, and explaining. Directives have four function : requesting, questioning, advising, and ordering. Commissives have three function : promising, offering, and theatering. Then expressive have five function : thanking, pardoning, praising, greeting, and expressing.
2.1.Representatives
The function, frequency, and percentage of the kinds of speech act "representatives" can be seen in the following table.
Function Frequency
1.      Telling 212
2.      Asserting 9
3.      Concluding 9
4.      Suggesting 2
5.      Explaining 47
Total 279
Table 2 : Function, Frequency, and Percentage of speech act "Representatives"
      Table 2 show that dominant function of representatives is telling which appears 212 times, the second is explaining  which covering 47 times, the third is asserting which consisting of 9 times, the last is suggesting which covering 2 times. The examples of telling are given below :
      Alf    : " Mr. Bidwell likes boys who stand up as straight as soldier". (text 1)
Dian    : "well, Muslims from all over U. K and sometimes even from France,
                        Holland, and as far as Germany will come to this Annual Summer
                        gathering". (text 1)
   telling may means giving information to someone by speaking or writing or telling about something knows by speaker, we can see in the first example that Alf describes the types    of Mr. Bidwell. It utters may be in a purpose to make listener knows who is Mr. Bidwell.So, if listener meet him, he must stand up us as straight as soldier and must do what Mr. Bidwell likes.
       In the second example, Dian gives information to her friend that Annual Summer Gathering will be presented by Muslims from France, Holland, and Germany in order to make her friend interest to joint to the session.
2.2.Directives
      To know the Function, Frequency and Percentage of the kinds of speech act "Directives" in "kisi" rubric, it can be show in the table 3.
Function Frequency
1.      Requesting 8
2.      Questioning 120
3.      Advising 22
4.      Ordering 40
total 190
                   Table 3 : Function, Frequency and Percentage of speech act "Directives"
Table 3 above shows that in directives, there are five function : Requesting consisting of 8 times, Questioning covering 120 times,Advising consisting of 22 times, and Ordering covering 120 times. So, the most dominant function of speech act is questioning. The example of questioning are given below :
John       : "do you understand the meaning of toddy's question?" (text 2)
Emma : "can I pass this time, john?" (text 2)
The example above are directives functioned as questioning. Questioning means to ask something what we want to know or means speaker utters sentences  asking for information or answer from listener. Commonly the sentences begin by question word and ended by question mark.
The first sentence means speaker wants to know about listener understanding of toddy's question. Author  text 2 forms this sentence begins with the word 'do' indicates yes or no questions. The listener can say yes or no for the answer. In other words, the words yes and no mean the answer in positive and the answer. In other words , the words yes and no mean the answer in positive and the answer in negative.
      In the second sentence may means speaker confuses with her ability to pass the time, implicitly means she feels a torture of doing something. The word 'can' indicates that is be; tonged a questioning.
2.3.Expressive
      The Functions, Frequency, and Percentage of the Kinds of Speech act "Expressive" can be seen in the following table :
Functions Frequency
1.      Thanking 5
2.      Pardoning 4
3.      Praising 5
4.      Greeting 12
5.      Expressing 14
Total 40
Table 4 : Functions, Frequency, and Percentage of speech act "expressive"
      From table 4, we can see that the most domain function of expressive is expressing (it  appears 14 times. Than greeting as the second  domain function covering 12 times,  consisting of 5 times, and last is  pardoning with the frequency 4 times. The example of expressive functioned expressing are given below :
      A Boy : "I'm Afraid john," (text 6)
      A Boy : "I'm Afraid I couldn't resist your influence," (text 11)
      Alex    : "Dian,I was hoping you or going to cafeteria of postbag lounge."
                     (text 11)
      Expressing means expressing desire, thinking or felling : in the first example a boy express his feeling. The sentence may mean he afraid something will happen to him. Then the second sentence shows speaker anxiety for himself toward the influence from someone. The last example means Alex still hopes Dian to go to cafeteria or postage tongue. It's indicated by the words "I was hoping". The verb-ING in 'hoping' express someone's feeling.
      Greeting is used when speaker wants to do greet. Greeting is useful in social relationship between speaker and listener. Speaker uses greeting to begin a conversation. The examples of expressive functioned to greeting are given below:
      A Boy : "good morning, sir!" (text 1)
      A Girl : " Hi, little friend" (text 3)
      Dian    : "Asalamualaikum, Alex" (text 11)
In the first sentence shows us that conversation will happen in the morning. It's indicated by the words ' good morning ". The words "sir" show us that the speaker more young in lower status that listener. The words "Hi, little friend" in the second example indicate that they're close friend. The third example shows us that speaker and listener are Islamic. The age of speaker can be same or more old than listener.
2.4. Commisives
      The Functions, Frequency, and Percentage of the Kinds of Speech act "Commisives" can be seen in the following table :         
Functions Frequency
1.      promising 4
2.      offering 2
3.      theatering 1
Total 7
Table 5 : Functions, Frequency, and Percentage of speech act "Commisives"
      Table 5 shows that in "kisi" rubric, there are three function of commissives. The most dominant is promising with the frequency 4 times (), the second is offering which appears 2 times (), the last is threatening consisting of i times (). The example of commissives functioned to promising are given :
      A Boy              : " I'll never work for a boss  like Mr Bidwell" (text 1)
      Tahseen           : " Insya Allah" (Islamic statement)(text 11)
      Alex                 : "I've promised myself I won't see the library for the whole
                                week' (text 11)
      Promising means speaker makes statement to do something in the future like in the first example, A boy said to someone clearly that he will never work at Mr. Bidwell office. The word 'will' indicates the future sentence from. The word 'will never' shows us the effect of sentences will be done when the sentence is uttered until in the future times.
      The second example belonged to Arabic sentence. 'Insya Allah' means the readiness of speaker to do something in the future.
      The last example may means Alex will not come to the library for the whole week. The words 'I've promised myself' indicates that Alex have promised for himself in the last time before he says the sentences to someone.

B.       Discussion
       As indicated earlier in chapter, the most dominant kind of speech act found in all short stories is representatives. It happens because of one reason that is in dialogues, speaker utters sentences about they have known in order to make listener also know about that. Based on searle in Levinson (1983), representatives commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition such as asserting, concluding. Every dialog used speech act representative. Kind of this speech act appears in all short stories in the sample and make it has the highest frequency that others. Then the second dominant kind of speech act found in all short stories is directives. Searle in Levinson (1985) argues that directives are attempts by the speaker to get the address to do something such as requesting, questioning, in dialogues, speaker and listener make conversation and hey hope respond (can be answer  or an act) from each other. When they express what their intend, they use kinds of speech act directives as the second dominant kind of speech act in the sample.
       The result of the analysis shows that the kind of speech act representatives is dominant by the function of telling. It always appears in every dialogue knows by speaker. It cause to the function of telling be the highest frequency that the others function of kinds of speech act representatives. To indicate telling, author writes this functions not only by using the sentence 'I tell you', but also create it in many ways based on their comprehension in writing and style of their writing. They have chosen the other correct sentence to replace the word 'tell'. Ackley et. Al. (1988) argue that authors choice of words must be appropriate to the audience, to the subject, and to the occasion for which they're writing. Inappropriate words may be wilder the readers and make the purpose of the paragraph unclear. In short, style of authors in presenting their idea through sentences into dialogues make their writing easy to understand and pleasure to read. The stiff words effect to the boredom of the readers.







CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.      Conclusion
The researcher can conclude that speech act play a great role in short stories of an Islamic magazine "Annida" they were only four kind of speech act found in short story in  magazine "Annida" they are:
1.       Directives
2.       Representatives
3.       Commissives
4.       Expressive
The researcher don't found declarative.
Based on the result it could be seen clearly the using of speech acts are very important to author in order to make their writing pleasure to read.  
B.      Suggestion
For English students, this research can increase to your literature about discourse analysis especially about speech acts and develop your ability to use kinds of speech act in written and spoken.

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