Sunday, July 8, 2012




1.1 Background
            In society has many differences of languages. Language is one of the instrument to make a communication become effective communication. It is depend on where are  the society live. Communication is an important aspect in our daily activity. People will understand meaning based on communication between them. In a community ,they have the rule and way to speak each other. It is influence to their life.
            For example of communication is in the marriage’s day. In serawai tribe their communication when their marriage day is different than another. The communication in marriage day is very important thing.
            Based on explanation above, the researcher interest to investigate a communication in Serawai tribe in a marriage day.
1.2 Research Questions
            a.What is the definition of ethnography of communication?
            b. How about marriage proposal of Serawai tribe?
1.3 Objective of the research
            a. To describe what definition  of ethnography of communication
            b. To describe a marriage proposal of Serawai tribe
1.4 Limitation of the research
            The researcher only investigate communication in a marriage of Serawai tribe.

                                                     CHAPTER 2

            The Ethnography of communication (EOC) is a method of discourse analysis in linguistics, which draws on the anthropological field of ethnography. Unlike ethnography proper, though, it takes both language and culture to be constitutive as well as constructive. In their book Qualitative Communication Research Methods, communications scholars Thomas R. Lindlof and Bryan C. Taylor (2002) explain "Ethnography of communication conceptualizes communication as a continuous flow of information, rather than as a segmented exchange of messages" (p. 44).
            According to Deborah Cameron (2001), EOC can be thought of as the application of ethnographic methods to the communication patterns of a group. Littlejohn & Foss (2005) recall that Dell Hymes suggests that “cultures communicate in different ways, but all forms of communication require a shared code, communicators who know and use the code, a channel, a setting, a message form, a topic, and an event created by transmission of the message" (p. 312).
            EOC can be used as a means by which to study the interactions among members of a specific culture or, what Gerry Philipsen (1975) calls a "speech community." Speech communities create and establish their own speaking codes/norms. Philipsen (1975) explains that “Each community has its own cultural values about speaking and these are linked to judgments of situational appropriateness” (p. 13). The meaning and understanding of the presence or absence of speech within different communities will vary.
            Local cultural patterns and norms must be understood for analysis and interpretation of the appropriateness of speech acts situated within specific communities. Thus, “the statement that talk is not anywhere valued equally in all social contexts suggests a research strategy for discovering and describing cultural or sub cultural differences in the value of speaking. Speaking is one among other symbolic resources which are allocated and distributed in social situations according to distinctive culture patterns” (Philipsen, 1975, p. 21).
            General aims of this qualitative research method include: being able to discern which communication acts and/or codes are important to different groups, what types of meanings groups apply to different communication events, and how group members learn these codes provides insight into particular communities. This additional insight may be used to enhance communication with group members, make sense of group members’ decisions, and distinguish groups from one another, among other things. "ECO studies," according to Lindlof and Taylor (2002), "produce highly detailed analysis of communication codes and their moment-to-moment functions in various contexts. In these analyses, speech communities are constituted in local and continuous performances of cultural and moral matters" (p. 45)
            The aims of the ethnography of communication is to explore the means of speaking available to member of a particular community. This includes the examination of formal, informal and ritual event within a particular group of speaker. The goal of ethnography of communication is to study the communicative competence of a specific speech community.
1. Speech community
            Speech community is a group of people who share a set of norms and expectations regarding the use of language. [1] Speech communities can be members of a profession with a specialized jargon, distinct social groups like high school students or hip hop fans (see also African American Vernacular English), or even tight-knit groups like families and friends. In addition, online and other mediated communities, such as many internet forums, often constitute speech communities. Members of speech communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the group's special purposes and priorities.
            Exactly how to define speech community is debated in the literature. Definitions of speech community tend to involve varying degrees of emphasis on the following:
  • Shared community membership
  • Shared linguistic communication
However, the relative importance and exact definitions of these also vary. Some would argue that a speech community must be a 'real' community, i.e. a group of people living in the same location (such as a city or a neighborhood), while more recent thinking proposes that all people are indeed part of several communities (through home location, occupation, gender, class, religious belonging, and more), and that they are thus also part of simultaneous speech communities.
Similarly, what shared linguistic communication entails is also a variable concept. Some would argue that a shared first language, even dialect, is necessary, while for others the ability to communicate and interact (even across language barriers) is sufficient.
The underlying concern in both of these is that members of the same speech community should share linguistic norms. That is, they share understanding, values and attitudes about language varieties present in their community. While the exact definition of speech community is debated, there is a broad consensus that the concept is immensely useful, if not crucial, for the study of language variation and change.
A person can (and almost always does) belong to more than one speech community. For example, a gay Jewish waiter would likely speak and be spoken to differently when interacting with gay peers, Jewish peers, or his co-workers. If he found himself in a situation with a variety of in-group and/or out-group peers, he would likely modify his speech to appeal to speakers of all the speech communities represented at that moment.
            A number of criteria for identifying a speech community have been suggested by researcher in this area, each of which often interact. These include :
·         Shared language use
·         Frequency of interaction by a group of people
·         Shared the rule of speaking and interpretation of speech performance
·         Shared attitudes and values regarding language forms and use
·         Shared sociocultural understanding presuppositions with regard to speech
( Saville- Troike 1989)
2. Communicative Competence
          Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
The term was coined by Dell Hymes in 1966,[1] reacting against the perceived inadequacy of Noam Chomsky's (1965) distinction between competence and performance.[2] To address Chomsky's abstract notion of competence, Hymes undertook ethnographic exploration of communicative competence that included "communicative form and function in integral relation to each other" (Leung, 2005).[3] The approach pioneered by Hymes is now known as the ethnography of communication.
As much as there has already been much debate about linguistic competence and communicative competence in the second and foreign language teaching literature, the outcome has always been the consideration of communicative competence as a superior model of language following Hymes' opposition to Chomsky's linguistic competence. This opposition has been adopted by those who seek new directions toward a communicative era by taking for granted the basic motives and the appropriacy of this opposition behind the development of communicative competence.[4]
            In judging the communicative the effectiveness of an utterance, Hymes (1972) proposed four criteria which are four facets of a speaker’s competence in communication. These are:
1.      Whether the utterance is formally possible ( that is grammatical correct)
2.      Whether the utterance is feasible (that is, manageable in the sense of being neither too long or too complex)
3.      Whether the utterance is appropriate (that is, whether it fits the linguistic and social context)
4.      Whether the utterance is actually done( that is, whether it is a accepted regardless of unorthodox grammar or, for instance, rejected as archaic. Regardless of its perfect grammar).
3. Patterns of Communication       
            Ethnographers are concerned with how communicate events are organized and how they are patterned, as well as how these patterns relate to and derive meaning from the social and cultural setting in which they occur. Communication patterns are modes of communication that we use frequently in certain situations or with certain people. Some patterns may be prevalent, that is, appearing in most communications regardless of the situation, while many are situation-specific, that is, used with certain people (friends, spouse, children, boss) or in certain situations (at work, in conflict, in fear).
            Communication patterns can include all of the following and much more: Apologising frequently,Self-criticism (eg. I'm such an idiot!),Criticism of others,etc
4. Speech events
            Speech event is a set of circumstances in which people interact in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome. Hymes describes speech events as often coinciding with what other researchers might term ‘genres’. Speech events, for Hymes are activities that are directly governed by rules or norms for the use of speech (1974a:52).Hymes gives stories, conversations, lectures and formal introductions as examples of speech events. In Hymes’s view, speech events should be treated as analytically independently of one another as one of speech event. Or situation for a certain effect.
5. Components of Communicative events
          Components of communicative events in Hymes framework consist of:
·         The setting of the event( including time, place and physical setting)
·         Participant involved in the event ( including persona characteristics such as age, sex, social status, and relationship)
·         The function or purpose of the communicative event ( including the individual goals of participants)
·         The act sequence, or discourse structure, of the communicative event
·         The instrumentalities, or linguistic code, used in the event ( including the language used, the channel of communication, e.g. writing and speaking., and the dialect or variety of the particular language)
·         Norms or sociocultural rules of interaction and interpretation
·         The genre,or type, of communicative event.
Each of these factors interact in the performance of particular communicative events, although some, on occasions, will be more significant than others.


3.1  Research Method
            This research use descriptive method. Descriptive ask about actually happened and terms of observable behavior events and the method to the technique of qualitative data collection but also include establishing a research relation with those you study and analyzing the data our collect. The researcher used this method to describe a marriage proposal of serawai tribe.
3.2  Population and sample
            Population in this research is the Serawai tribe. Sample in this research is Cugung langu village in Seluma regency.
3.3 Technique for  Collecting the Data
          In collecting the data, the researcher use the interview and observation in Cugung langu village. The interview come from Leader of tradition or leader of tribe. They tell the some rule of communication marriage’s day.


            In Serawai tribe, marriage is a internal contract between  a man and woman. If a someone has been adult, They must married In order to avoid sexual deviations in the situation’s day. Serawai people argue: the aims of marriage is to make a  good and happiness family and based on Islam rules. Almost of Serawai people is Moslem. They live harmonics each other. They are friendly and if someone meet another they take communicate although only say greeting. If one of their familly get marriage, they help each other and mutual understanding. They bring  goods to their family house  like rice, furniture’home, money, fruits, etc.
            Serawai people have a tradition in marriage days, like Bimbang. Bimbang is wedding celebration. In ancient tradition,It’s do for seven days. But now it’s don’t do again, serawai people argue it so long time for wedding celebration. In a marriage day ,before married it do. The man bring antaran. Antaran is important good to bring. Usually, antaran shape like Box. It’s content lemang ( Rice in bamboo) ,serkah sirih( leaf and palm fruits) and money, ten thousand rupiah. A man also bring keris. It’s symbol of male
            In ancient tradition, the place of married at lepau .lepau is like stage and usually it made of tree and coconut leaf. To make it, serawai people do together in one day. For sevenths days wedding celebration event do there. But now, serawai people only make pengujung. Basically, it’s shape same with lepau. But pengujung is smaller than lepau. Its made close of married’s home. Also serawai people do marriage in mosque in the village.
            For more clearly about it. Look at  explanation bellow:
A marriage proposal of Serawai tribe
Genre                     :  a Serawaian ( serawai people) marriage proposal
Topic                      :  proposal of marriage
Function/ purpose : to declare intention to marry and to establish or develop an appropriate role relationship
Setting                 :  May vary but usually in the house, pengujung, and mosque.
Key                         :  serious and quiet
Participants            : male, young adult
                                 Female, young adult
                                 Their occupation and status is not relevant. Not from same or one                                        family. It’s should to from the other area or regency.
                                 Female’s father
Message form       : Not eye gaze spoken, silence
Message content   : father of female says: Usikum ibadallah hiwanafsiyah ya bitqwallah
                              Hi ….i married you with my daughter
                              Male says: I accept your married’s daughter
Act sequence     : 1. Female’s father take male’s hand
                              2. male and father of female look at each other
                              3. male and father of female said married creed
                              4. male and father of female release their hand each other
                             5. the leader of tribe says to audience.” Legal”
Rules for interaction: a man look at eye female’s father carefully. A man must control his                                       emotional when shake hand with female’s father. A man sit parallel                                    with female’ father and his body must sturdy.
Norms of interpretation: marriage is such an important moment in a serawai tribe. When the                                       marriage moment, female only silence. Only her father talk with                                  male.

            The marriage of serawai tribe, actually same with the way married in Indonesia generally, but in serawai tribe it’s influence with their traditions and culture. Before the married begin, male sit in the one side of pengujung. A male sit on  little mattess or ambal. And female and the family sit in front of male. After that their family do madu kulo (deliberation between male and female’s family) When marriage moment ,Male and father’s female sit in sleeping mat. After agreement of married, they pray together.and then eat some foods in the house.


            After  the researcher finishing this paper. The researcher can conclude that, in serawai tribe marriage is very important to do If a person has been adult. In wedding celebration there are many activities to do, is like bimbang, bring goods, bring antaran , etc. It’s very unique and different with another  area.
            The suggestion from the researcher is if we want to do research, we must know the location and purpose of our research clearly, and do by your competence



Paltridge, Brian. 2000. Making Sense of discourse analysis. Australia: gold coast

Yule, George. 1995. Pragmatics. New York: Oxford university

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