Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Teaching of English Grammar

ther are many ways of describing the grammar of language.
According to  Ur (1996:75-76) “Grammar is the way words are put together to make a correct sentences and grammar does not only affect how units of language are combined in order to look right; it also affect their meaning”. Grammar is the study or science of a rule for forming words and combining them into a sentence (Hornby, 1974 : 5). People describe grammar as the rules of language especially in teaching and learning process.
In teaching grammar, Bygate (1994:18) makes a list of a ’model’ teacher that s/he should :
a)       be capable of putting across a sense of how grammar interacts with the lexicon as a communicable system
b)      be able to analyze that grammatical problems that learners encounter
c)      have the ability and contidence to evalute the use of grammar, especially by learners, against criteria of accurancy, appropriateness and expressiveness
d)     be aware of contrastive relations between native language and foreign language
e)      understand and implement to processes of simplification by which over knowledge of  grammar can best be presented to learners at different stages of learning
Later, Bygate (1994:22) divides the language skills into two categories:
a.    Recetive skills (listening, reading) are more directly under the control of            inductive learning.
b.      Productive skills (speaking, writing) are more likely to be aided by deductive learning.
The first of these two links is easier to make sense of than the second: if we are learning grammar from the receptive point of view, then we are doing so through exposure to, or confrontation with, given textual instances. For a reader or listener to achieve greater comprehension, precise formulation of ‘rules of thumb’ is probably unnecessary, since generalization can be reached inductively. On the other hand, the second of two statement proposes that the use language productively, in speaking and writing. We typically need a more ‘ top down’ approach, making use ‘rules of thumb’ as a short cut  to an ability which could only be acquired more  slowly and tentatively through the inductive method.
Grammar is inescapable fact of a language system, because it is the set of operating principles that permit orderly speaking and writing ( Irmscher, 1972). Chalker (1994) states that grammar is rule.
The English grammar contents many elements. Grammar books discuss them in any ways example; A Practical English Grammar by Thomson and Martinet includes : Article, Nouns, Adjective Prepositions, Conjuction, The Auxiliary, Tenses, The Conditional, The Infinitive, The Gerund, Passive Voice, And Reported Speech. These elements are explained in such as a way enriched with examples to emphasize the rules.

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